Paracetamol is a metabolite of phenacetin.It is also known as Acetaaminophen.It is potent antipyretic and is also effective as an analgesic in mild or moderate degrees of msculo-skeletal pain.But it possesses no anti-inflammatory effect.Paracetamol is well absorbed on oral administration.It is metabolized in liver and excreted in urine in a conjugated form.


Aceclofenac is a non steroidal anti inflammatory drug(NSAID).It is used for the pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis,osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.Aceclofenac has higher anti-inflammatory action than conventional NSAIDs.It is a cytokine inhibitor.Aceclofenac works by blocking the action of a substance in the body called cyclo oxygenase.Cyclo oxygenase involvde in the production of prostaglandins(chemical in the body) which causes the pain,swelling and inflammation.aceclofenac is a glycolic ester of diclofenac.


Cefixime is oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic.cefixime is a cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat infections caused by bacteria.These include infections of the ear(otitis media caused by haemophilus influenzae,moraxella catarrhalis and S.pyogenes)Nose,sinuses(sinusitis),Throat(tonsillitis,pharyngitis caused by S.pyrogenes),chest and lungs(bronchitis,pneumonia caused by streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) and urinary system and uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.The bactericidal action of cephalosporin due to the inhibition of cell wall synthesis.


Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor drug that inhibit the gastric acid secretion.pantoprazole is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 system.Metabolism mainly consists of demethylation by CYP2C19 followed by sulfation.Other metabolic pathway is oxidation by CYP3A4.Pantoprazole metabolites are not thought to have any pharmacological significance.Pantoprazole is rarely free of drug interaction.Generally inactive at acidic PH of stomach,thus it is usually given with a pro kinetic drug.Pantoprazole binds irreversibly to proton pumps and suppress the secretion of acid.Pantoprazole is used to short term treatment of erosion and ulceration of the esophagus caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease.


Domperidone is an antidopaminergi drug,used orally,rectally or intravenously,generally to suppress the nausea and vomiting,as prokinetic agent and for promoting lactation.Domperidone blocks the action of dopamine.It has strong affinities for the D2D3 dopamine receptors,which are found in the Chemoreceptor trigger zone(CTZ),located just outside the blood brain barrier,which among others, regulates nausea and vomiting(area postrema on the floor of the fourth ventricle and rhomboid fossa).Domperidone has anti emetic activity.Domperidone is used together with metolopramide,cyclizine and 5HT3 receptor antagonists(such as granisetron) in the treatment of nausea and vomiting.Domperidone is a first choice antiemetic in some countries.Domperidone is sometimes purchased from pharmacies in other countries for this purpose.It can be used in the patient with Parkinson disease unlike metoclopramide, domperidone does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Domperidone is also found effective in the treatment of gastroparesis,a stomach motility condition and for paediatric gastroesophageal reflux(infant vomiting).


Ceftriaxone is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic like other third generation cephalosporins, it has broad spectrum activity against gram-positive and Gram-negative most cases it is considered to be equivalent to cefotaxime in terms of safety and efficacy.ceftriaxone is often used(in combination,but not direct,with macrolide and/or aminoglycoside antibiotics)for the treatment of community acquired or mild to moderate healthcare associated pneumonia.It is also a choice drug for the treatment of bacterial meningitis.In pediatrics,it is commonly used in febrile infants between 4 and 8 weeks of age who are admitted to the hospital to exclude sepsis.It haso been used in the Lyme disease,Typhoid fever and Gonorrhea.Ceftriaxone 98% bound to plasma proteins.Ceftriaxone cross the blood brain barrier.


Sulbactam is a molecule which is given in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics to inhibit beta lactamase,an enzyme produced by bacteria that destroys the antibiotics.sulbactam is a irreversible inhibitor of beta-lactamase,it binds the enzyme and does not allow it to interact with the antibiotic.Sulbactam is able to inhibit the most ommon forms of beta lactamase.sulbactam is a penicillinate sulfone.Being a beta lactamase inhibitor,it is synergistic with many beta lactamase labile drugs penicillins and cephalosporins.The combination of sulbactam and ceftriaxone is active against all the organisms sensitive to ceftriaxone.In addition,it demonstrates synergistic activity(reduction in MICs for the combination versus those of each component) in avariety of organism.Sulbactam is metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacological and antibacterial activities.sulbactam is eliminated via kidney by glomerular filteration and tubular secretion.sulbactam is also secreted in to the bile.sulbactam is approximately 30% bound to plasma proteins.


Vitamins are essential microconstituent of diet,which do not give energy but are necessary for the normal metabolism of the body.although some of the vitamins like vitamin k,pantothenic aid,folic acid,cyanocobolamin,vitamin D are synthesized in the body but their rate of production is not sufficient for maintenance of health.The importance of vitamins as drug is primarily in the prevention and treatment of deficiency diseases.The deficiency states can develop due to inadequate diet,impaired absorption,in efficient utilization,increased requirement or increased rate of excretion.Although rare,toxic effects of vitamin A,D and B6 are well known.
Vitamins are broadly classified in to two groups.
1)Water soluble vitamins:-B complex,C.These are meagerly stored in the body and the excess is excreted with little chance of toxicity.
2)Fat soluble vitamins:-A,D,E,K.These are stored in the body for prolonged periods and liable to cause cumulative toxicity after regular ingestion of large amount.


1)Thiamine(Vit B1):-

Vit. B1 was the first member of the B complex is synthesized by plants and bacteria.
Indication;-Prophylaxis in infants,pregnant females,malabsorbtion,beri beri (Dry and Wet).chronic alcoholics, neurological and cardiovascular disorders,multiple neuritis,toxic and confusional states,anorexia.

2)Riboflavin(vit B2):-

In the human body vit B2 occurs in two forms Flavin mono nucleotide(FMN) and Flavin adenine dinucleotide(FAD).
Indication:-Areboglavinosis-prevention and treatment,arteriosclerosis,As adjunct in treatment of hypertension,Diabetes,obesity.

3)Niacin(Vit B3):-

Niacin is a generic name and includes nicotinic acid and its derivative like nicotinamide.Niacin was initially called pellagra preventing factor.Niacin can be synthesized in our body from tryptophan.
Indication:-prophylaxis and treatment of pellagra,hartnup’s diseases,peripheral vascular diseases hypersensitivity.

4)Pantothenic acid(vit B5):-

Pantothenic acid is an organic acid,widely distributed in food sources especially liver ,mutton,egg yolk and vegetables.
Indication:-post operative paralytic illness,as nutritional supplement along with other B complex group.


takes part in some metabolic processes.deficiency likely to occur as manifestation of toxic overdose of INH(an important anti-tubercular drug) with encephalopathic symptoms.Therapeutic dose of pyridoxine is depending upon the cause(about 60 to 80 mg)

6)Folic aid:-

Chemically it is a pteroylglutamic aid.It takes important part in erythropoiesis or formation of RBC,nuleo-protein synthesis.its daily requirement is about 100mg for an average adult but pregnant women should be supplied an additional 300mg daily.Its therapeutic dose is about 5mg.


It is a valeric acid contains sulphur.It takes part in in the carbohydrate metabolism and tissue oxidation along with other vit.B complex factors.Essential in the synthesis of fatty acids

8).Vitamin B12:-

Chemically it is Cyanocobalamine.It is essential in erythropoiesis or formation of RBC,in the metabolism of nervous system,takes part in nucleo-protein synthesis.Hence essential for growth and nutrition.Daily requirement is about 2 microgram.It is use in megaloblastic or macrocytic anaemia,but specific in pernicious anaemia.also in various neurological,neuron-muscular and articular (or joint) disorders.


Vit.C is a water soluble vitamin.It is heat labile Vit.C is redily oxidized,hence deteriorates in contact with the atmosphere.Chemically Vit.C is Ascorbic acid.Essential for formation of intercellular substances.Takes part in oxidation reduction processes in tissue cells.Maintain the health of capillary walls(of blood vessels).As an anti-oxidant.Vit.C prevents the atherosclerosic,ageing process and cancers.Its daily requirement is about 40 to 50 mg per day and therapeutic dose is usually not less than 200 mg.It is clinically uses to increase the body resistance for prophylactic and curative purpose against infection.For the preventive and curative purpose against haemorrhagic (or bleeding) onditions.In diseases of the teeth and gums.To enhance healing.In the condition of an anti-oxidant


1)Vitamin A:-

Vit.A is a fat soluble vitamin .It is heat stable.Chemically Vit.A is an unsaturated primary alcohol(Retinol),closely related to carotene.It is essential for the growth of tissue,normal function of the epithelial cells,for the process of vision during night.Beta carotene is an important anti oxidant which is of immense value in the maintenance of health and prevention of various serious conditions e.g. atheroslerosis.ageing effet on skin,cancer of skin etc.It is use in the Xeropthalmia,Keratomalacia,Night blindness,Hyperkeratosis.etc.

2)Vitamin D:-

Vit. D is a fat soluble Vitamin.It is heat stable.Chemically it is Sterol compound.The important type of Vitamin D are Vit.D2 and Virt.D3.Calciferol and Cholicalciferol.It is use in Rickets in children,Osteomalacia in adults,sometime Tetany due to Parathyroid dysfunction

3)Vitamin E:-

Vit.E is a fat soluble vitamin.It is heat stable.Chemically it is called alpha-tocopherol.Its daily requirement is about 10mg per day and therapeutic dose is about 50 to 600 mg or depending upon the nature of the disease.It is use in male sterlity,for increasing the general vigour in run down condition of the elderly male.also sometimes found useful in cases of habitual abortions.Some muscular dystrophies and degenerations(in large dose).In some cardiovascular maladies.As an antioxidant.Prevents the atherosclerosis,ageing process and cancers.

4)Vitamin K:-

It is a fat soluble vitamin.It is heat satble.Chemically Vit.K is a Naphtha-quinone derivative.Types-Vit.K1 and Vit.K2 are the natural varities.Synthetic Vitamin K analogues are also available which are water soluble.It helps the liver to synthesise the prothrombin.Its therapeutic dose is about 5 to 10 mg daily.Clinically it is used in Hypoprothrombinaemia,liver damage,bleeding conditions etc.
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